Chapter 13 Medical Terminology Homework

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Medical Terminology, Chapter 13, The Endocrine System

abnormal enlargement of the extremeties (hands and feet) that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty
occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone
inflammation of the adrenal glands
adrenocorticotroic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates the growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex
regulates the salt and water levels in the body by increasing sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys
aids in regulating the levels of salt and water in the body
an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone
chemically related to the male sex hormone testosterone
influence sex-related characteristics
hormones that influence sex-related characteristics
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted
a medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
works with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues
the administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells
a disorder of the adrenal glands due to excessive production of aldosterone
the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex
regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body; also has an anti-inflammatory action
the synethetic equivalent of corticosteroids produced by the body
a congenital form of hypothyroidism
caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol
caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone
a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both
caused by very high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)
occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina, causing blood to leak into the posterior segment of the eyeball
mineral substances, such as sodium and potassium, that are normally found in the blood
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of the endocrine glands
any disease caused by a disorder of the endocrine system
stimulates the sympathetic nervous system; a synthetic hormone used as a vasoconstrictor to treat conditions such as heart dysrhythmias and asthma attacks
develops and maintains the female secondary sex characteristics and regulates the menstrual cycle
an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit
measures the glucose (blood sugar) levels after the patient has not eaten for 8-12 hours
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
in the female, stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova (eggs); in the male, stimulates the production of sperm
measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks
a reproductive cell, sperm in the male and ova (eggs) in the female
a form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies
abnormal overgrowth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion o fthe growth hormone before puberty
increases the level of glucose in the bloodstreasm
blood sugar; the basic form of energy used by the body
the form in which the liver stores the excess glucose
an abnormal nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland
any hormone that stimulates the gonads
ovaries in females and testicles in males; gamete-producing glands
an autoimmune disorder that is caused by hyperthyroidism and is characterized by goiter and/or exophthalmos
regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues
the condition of excessive mammary development in the male
an autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland
a blood test that measures the average blood glucose level over the previous 3-4 months
home blood glucose monitoring
measures the current blood sugar level
chemical messengers that are secreted by endocrine glands and have specialized functions in regulating the activities of specific cells, organs, or both
a synthetic version of the growth hormone that is administered to stimulate growth when the natural supply of growth hormone is insufficient for normal development
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
stimulates the secretion of the hormones required to maintain pregnancy
characterized by abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones
a condition due to excessive secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland
an abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood
the condition of excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands
the condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream
the overproduction of the parathyroid hormone, causing the condition known as hypercalcemia
pathology resulting in the excessive secretion by the anterior lobe of the ituitary gland
an imbalance of metabolism caused by the overproduction of thyroid hormones
characterized by abnormally low levelsl of calcium in the blood
a condition caused by deficient secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland
an abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood
the condition of deficient secretion of hormones by the sex glands
caused by an insufficnent or absent secretion of the parathyroid hormone
a condition of reduced secretion due to the partial, or complete, loss of the function of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion; also known as an underactive thyroid
regulates the transport of glucose to body cells and stimulates the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen for storage
caused by very low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
a benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)
stimulates ovulation in the female; stimulates the secretion of testosterone in the male
stimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk
laparoscopic adrenalectomy
a minimally invasive procedure to surgically remove one or both adrenal glands
a hormone secreted by adipocytes (fat cells)
the surgical removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland; also used to describe the removal of a lobe of the liver, brain, or lung
in the female, stimulates ovulation; in the male, stimulates testosterone secretion
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
increases the production of melanin in melanocytes of the skin
influences the sleep-wakefulness cycles
caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion; also known as adult hypothyroidism
secreted by specialized cells of the brain
stimulates the sympathetic nervous system
oral glucose tolerance test
performed to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and to aid in diagnosing hypoglycemia
a complication of hyperparathyroidism in which bone becomes softened and deformed and may develop cysts
stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth. It also causes milk to flow from the mammary glands after childbirth.
a feather-shaped organ located posterior to the stomach that functions as part of both the digestive and the endocrine systems
the surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas
those parts of the pancreas that have endocrine functions
an inflammation of the pancreas
embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland, works with the hormone calcitonin that is secreted by the thyroid gland to regulate the calcium levels in the blood and tissues
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
works with calcitonin to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues
the surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands
a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes the gland to produce excess epinephrine
a very small endocrine glands that is located in the central portion o fthe brain
the surgical removal of the pineal gland
a tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin; can also cause insomnia by disrupting the circadian cycle
any disorder of pituitary function
a slow-growing benign tumor of the pituitary gland; functioning pituitary tumors often produce hormones in large and unregulated amounts; nonfunctioning pituitary tumors do not produce significant amounts of hormones
hangs from the infuldibulum below the hypothalamus and functions to secrete hormones that control the activity of other endocrine glands
completes preparation of the uterus for possible pregnancy
a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin
the condition of first being capable of reproducing sexually
any one of a large number of hormone-like substances secreted by endocrine glands or artificially produced as medications to relieve swelling and inflammation in conditions such as asthma
synthetic thyroid hormones
administered to replace lost thyroid function
secreted by the testicles, stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics
the surgical removal of the thymus gland
an inflammation of the thymus gland
stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells of the immune system
located near the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity
a butterfly-shaped glands that lies on either side of the larynx, just below the thyroid cartilage
measures thyroid function
a relatively rare, lift-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
stimulates the secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland
thyroid-stimulating hormone assay
a diagnostic test to measure the circulating blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone
thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
regulate the rate of metabolism
an autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells
an insulin resistance disorder
having the nature, properties, or qualities of an adult male

Medical Terminology Chapter 13

unequal refraction of the two eyes
unequal refraction of the two eyes
adhesion of the upper eyelid to the lower one
twitching/uncontrollable blinking of the eyes
device used to hold eye open during surgery
visual defect in which all objects appear green
intermediate part of the eyeball
abnormal narrowing of the pupil
inflammation of the ciliary body and cornea
discharge of bloody tears
posterior displacement of the eye
infection of herpes on the face
different iris color in the two eyes
accumulation of fluids in the eye causing pressure and distention of the eyeball
infection of glands of the iris
surgical removal of the iris and ciliary body
equality of size in the pupils
objects appear bigger than they are
congenital small size of the crystalline lens
objects appear smaller than they are
pertaining to the nose and tear ducts
neonatal eye infection contracted during birth
relating to the treatment of defective vision
continuance of visual sensation after removal of stimulus
surgical breakdown and removal of the lens of the eye
adjustment of the eye for vision in bright light
having more than one pupil
decreased vision in old age
pus and inflammation around the eye
congenital cleft of the eyelid
stronger vision in the left eye
normal focusing of the retina
pus and inflammation of the intermediate coat
varicose veins of the eyelid
abnormal dryness of the eyeball
(congenital) absence of all or part of the iris
discharge from the eyelid
inflammation of the conjunctiva
vision in which all objects appear to be blue
paralysis of the ciliary muscle
agent that stimulates the secretion of tears
having a double pupil in the eye
excision of a portion of the cornea
incision of the lacrimal duct
concerning or affecting one eye
any fungal disease of the eye
paralysis of the eye (muscles)
instrument for observing (change of curvature of) the lens
pertaining to the retina and choroid
ulceration of the lacrimal apparatus
pertaining to the abdomen and bladder
inability to perceive the color red
agent to trigger immune response
abnormal focusing in the retina
abnormal separation/inability to close the eyelids
recording of exhaled CO2 concentrations
surgical repair of cartilage
inflammation of the choroid and retina
plastic surgery of the conjunctiva, the membrane lining the eye
abnormal location of the pupil
surgical formation of a pupil
subconscious awareness of facts not perceived by senses
surgical removal of part of the ciliary body
disease that attacks the gum and bone around the teeth
herpes simplex of the lips, cold sore
excessively keen sense of taste
introducing a substance to a vein through a needle
insertion of a tube into a hollow organ
stretching of the iris to treat glaucoma
state of having only one arm
one affected with nearsightedness
pertaining to the eye and nose
ability to perceive and distinguish odors
hypersensitivity to protein of the lens of the eye
enlargement of the prostate gland
form of color blindness characterized by perception of red as blue
any disease of the retina
small separating wall or partition
instrument for examining the eyes
pertaining to the breastbone and ribs
anterior pituitary hormone stimulating thyroid gland
looking like a varicose (twisted/dilated) vein
tear; lacrimal sac or duct
herpes, a creeping skin disease


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